European countries battle weather chaos
Thousands of people have been left stranded after roads and rail networks were disrupted and airports closed.
In the Balkans, heavy flooding has forced more than 1,000 people to evacuate their homes.
Temperatures in Poland have fallen to as low as -33C (-27F) in the past few days.
Police in the country say 18 people are now known to have have died from exposure, most of them homeless people who had been drinking alcohol outside.
Russian media reported three deaths in Moscow and at least two people were also reported to have been killed in Germany.
Thousands of railway passengers in Germany had to spend the night in their trains after the snow forced high-speed inter-city routes to a halt.
The authorities in Berlin kept underground stations, soup kitchens and heated buses open all night to provide shelter for the city's homeless.
There has been widespread disruption to international travel, with several major airports forced to close.
Significant flight delays were reported at London Heathrow, Paris Charles de Gaulle, Amsterdam Schiphol, Berlin Tegel and Duesseldorf airports.
London's Gatwick airport re-opened on Friday morning after two days, but passengers have been warned to expect delays and cancellations. London City airport and Edinburgh airport in Scotland also suffered closures.
Eurostar says it expects to operate a significantly reduced service until Sunday, but that no more tickets will be available until Monday.
In other developments
- Denmark mobilized its army to help emergency vehicles make their way through snow in the south-east
- Snowfalls trapped hundreds of motorists in Brittany and Normandy
- In Belgium, 650km (403 miles) of traffic jams were reported, with Flanders hit hard
Temperatures are an average 5-10C below average in some major cities.
Meanwhile, heavy rain has led to severe flooding in parts of Albania, Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro.
More than 1,000 people have fled their homes to escape rising waters and officials have declared a state of emergency in several affected areas.